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[转]中国企业境外承揽工程的法律风险识别及防范

2018年05月04日 16:53        字号:    

【摘要】随着国家“一带一路”战略的实施,中国企业加速进军国际工程市场,尤其是党的十八大以来,在以习近平总书记为核心的党中央正确领导下,中国企业成功实施了一大批境外工程项目,带动了相关产品、技术、快三“走出去”,为促进国家经济转型发挥了积极作用。但同时,由于国际市场存在很多不稳定和不确定因素,企业在境外承揽工程中遇到的法律风险及防范问题日益突出,如何做好境外法律风险识别及防范正成为企业走出去面临的一项新课题。本文结合中铁六局集团公司在境外市场多年的法律风险识别及防范管理实践,对如何做好境外承揽工程的法律风险识别及防范工作进行了分析、探讨,并提出了应对措施。

【guanjianci】jingwaigongcheng falvfengxian fangfan

zhongtieliujujituanzaijingwaishichangyoushiyuniandedaxingxiangmuguanlijingyan,xianhouzhongbiaoyuenantonghaoxiandaihuagaizao、yuenanheneiqinggui2haoxianheyuanjinbabuweiyiyuanerqizongchengbaodengxiangmu,bingzaiyuenan、jianpuzhaihebajisitanfenbiesheyoubanshijigou。youqishiyuenanheneishijiling-hedongxianqingguiepczongchengbaoxiangmu,zuoweiyuenandiyitiaokaigongkuaisandechengshiguidaojiaotongxiangmu,beishouzhongyuegefanggaoduguanzhu,xiangmucaiyongzhongguobiaozhun、zhongguojishu、zhongguozhuangbeihezhongguodaikuan,beichengwei“zhongyueliangguozhengfuhezuodeshifanxinggongcheng”,xiangmuzongtouzie6.44yimeiyuan,muqiantujianshigongyijibenwancheng,jijiangjinruzongheliandiaoshiyunxingjieduan。falvfengxianfangfanzuoweigaixiangmudeyixiangzhongyaoneirong,gongsiqidonglequanmian、xitongdefalvfengxianshibie、fangfangongzuo,liqiuguifanqiyejingwaijingyingxingwei,cujinqiyeheliyouxukaizhanjingwaijingyinghuodong,tuidongjingwaijingyingchixujiankangfazhan,zaiguochengzhongqudelejiajiaohaodeshixiao。

快三benwengenjuzhongtieliujujituanjingwaichenglangongchengxiangmufalvfengxianshibiejifangfangongzuodeshijianjingyan,jiehedongnanyadiqufalvhuanjinghegongchengxiangmuchenglanbufendianxinganli,duizhongguoqiyezouchuguomen,zaichenglangongchengxiangmuzhongjinxingfalvfengxiandeshibiejinxinglefenxi、tantao,bingtichulexiangyingdefangfancuoshi,xiwangduicanyujingwaichenglangongchengxiangmudeqiyeyousuoqifa。

jingwaichenglangongchengdefalvfengxian,yunhanyuchenglangongchengjingyinghuodongdequanguocheng。anzhaogongchengchenglandefazhanjieduan,dazhijiangjingwaichenglangongchengdefalvfengxianfenweiyixialeibie: yishigongchengxiangmutoubiaojieduancunzaidezhuyaofalvfengxian;ershigongchengxiangmuhetongtanpanjiqiandingjieduancunzaidezhuyaofalvfengxian;sanshigongchengxiangmushishijieduancunzaidezhuyaofalvfengxian;sishigongchengxiangmushouweijieduancunzaidezhuyaofalvfengxian。

yi、gongchengxiangmutoubiaojieduancunzaidezhuyaofalvfengxian

快三gongchengxiangmutoubiaojieduanzhideshicongxiangmulixiangdaozhaobiaohuodongwanchengzheiyijieduan。zheiyijieduandefalvfengxianshizhenggejingwaichenglangongchengfalvfengxianguanligongzuodezhongzhongzhizhong,yingzhongdianzuohaoyixiajifangmiangongzuo:

1.falvjinzhidiaochafengxian

jieheduifalvjinzhidiaoyangongzuodejingyanhetihui,kuaisanrenweidaduoqiyezailvxingjingwaitoubiaojieduandefalvjinzhidiaochafangmianzuodebuwanshan,huozheshuozhenduixingbuqiang,yinfadefalvfengxianzhuyaotixianzaiyixiajigefangmian:

快三yishizoucuoledifang,jiduigongchengsuozaiguodeguobieshichangfengxianpanduanbawobuzhun。youxieguojiashikuaisanguozhengfushenminggaofengxiandiquhuoshijianyijinzhijingyingdediqu,biruchaoxian;youxieshikuaisanguojinzhitouzideguojiahuodiqu;youxieguojiashidiyuanjingjitufadediqu。qiyeyidanzoucuoledifang,bujindaozhiqiyejingyingfengxianjiaju,shenzhikenengyinfawaijiaoshijian。

ershirucuolexing,jishezukuaisanguozhengfuminglingxianzhidexingyehuoxiangmusuozaiguoxianzhidexingye。biru,jinqiguowuyuanminglingxianzhikuaisanguoqiyejinrujingwaifangdichan、yingcheng、jiudian、yuleye、tiyujulebu。rucuoxingyifangmianshixingyejingyingfengxianjiaju,lingyifangmiankenengduiguojia“yidaiyilu”changyichanshengfuzuoyong。

sanshizhancuoledui,jiyouyudiaochabuming,xuanzelegongchengsuozaiguofanduidanghuozuzhifabudexiangmuhuozhengzhisecainonghoudexiangmu,bazhengchangdegongchengchenglanjiarulezhengzhidesecai,shidefengxianjiaju。

快三sishizoucuolelu,jihushikuaisanguohuoxiangmusuozaiguofalvguidingdeqianzhixingshenpichengxuhuoqitachengxu,shidexiangmuqiantupushuomili,fengxianzengjia。biru,qianjinianshangwubuduizouchuquqiyejingwaisheligongsideshenpizhi,youbirubufenqiyeraokaiwaihuijianguanchengxudeng。

快三wushizhaocuoleren,jiguoyuxinrenhezuofang,shixianmeiyoulvxingyinglvxingdediaochaliuchenghuomeiyoujinxingjinzhidiaocha,xuancuolejingwaihezuohuoban,hezuohoucaifaxianbururenyi,danweishiyiwan。

liushisuancuolezhang,jimeiyouduigongchengxiangmujinxingkexingxingyanjiuhexitongxingguihua,zaochengjuecexingcuowu,jinerzaochengjudadejingjisunshi。

qishidacuolejia,jidiaochabuming,huomangmuyajia,zaochengzhongguoqiyezhijianzaijingwaideexingjingzheng,sunhaizhongguoqiyedeliyi,yingxiangguojiaxingxiang。

2.gongchengchengbaofangshifengxian

快三yibanzaiyezhufabudezhaobiaowenjian(bidding documents)zhong,jibenyijingquedingleepc、bot、pppdenggongchengchengbaofangshi,gezhongchengbaofangshiyejuyoubutongdefalvfengxian。biru,epcchengbaomoshizhongdeshejicuowudeguiding: 99nianyinpishuguiding,duiyushejicuowu,“jinguanguzhutongyisheji,danchengbaoshangrengyingzifeiduiquexianjinxinggaizheng”。yinci,qiyeyifangmianyaogenjuzishendeshijinengli,shenzhongxuanzechengbaofangshi,bimianxuanzeyuzishennenglibupipeidechengbaofangshierdaozhifengxianjiaju,huozhetongguoxuanzeyounengli、shilidehezuohuoban,laizhuanyifengxian;lingyifangmianyaoshiyingguojigongchengkuaisandexinxingshi,jiaqiangxinxingchengbaofangshidexuexijifengxianpinggu,biruxunsujiaqiangguojipppxiangmudeshishiyunzuonengli。

快三3.gongchengxiangmutoubiaobaojiafengxian

toubiaobaojiafengxianshijingwaigongchengchenglandehexinfengxian。jingwaixiangmutoubiaobaojiayunhanlezhengzhi、jingji、falv、jinrong、huanbao、shuiwu、lilv、huilvdengyixiliedeyinsu,yaozaipinghengruogangeyinsuzhongdadaozuiyou,qinandushikexiangerzhide。danjishinanduzaida,qiyeyebuneng“weizhongbiaoerbaojia”,“weichenglanerbaojia”,zhifengxianchangkouyubugu,mangmubaojia,mangmuzhongbiao,zheifangmianzhongguoqiyezaiguojigongchengchengbaofangmianfuchulecantongdaijia,dijiazhongbiaoshizhongguoqiyejingwaigongchengchenglanfalvfengxianchanshengdezhongyaogenyuan。yinci,qiyeyaozaichongfendefalvjinzhidiaochaheshichangdiaochadejichushang,kongzhihaomeigefengxiandedanglianghegailv,duibiqiyefengxianzhidechengshounengli,zaicijichushangquedinghelibaojia。

4.lianhetibaojiadiaozhengfengxian

快三zaijingwaigongchengchenglanzhong,zuchengtoubiaolianheti(consortium for bids)jinxingtoubiaoshibijiaochangjiandexianxiang。danzhongguoqiyecanyutoubiaoyeyouteshudeqingkuang,jijigeyewuhubudezhongguoqiyeyueding,yiqizhongyigebijiaozhimingqiyemingyizaijingwaijinxinggongchengtoubiao,zhongbiaohoujigeqiyeanyuedinghuozhuanyejinxinggongchengliangdefenpei,zhongbiaohouduiwaishidanduqiyeshishi,duineishijigeqiyezaishishi,yejiushixingchengshishishangde“lianheti”。wulunnazhongqingkuangdelianhetitoubiao,doukenengcunzaitoubiaoqiangenjushijiqingkuangjinxingbaojiadiaozheng,yibanshiyoulianhetiqiantoufang(lead member)zuzhishishi。zaishijicaozuozhong,youyukeguanyinsuhuozishenliyiyuanyin,qiantoufangkenengzaibaojiadiaozhengzhongyouyihuowuyizuochusunhailianhetichengyuanliyideshishi,daozhilianhetichengyuanfengxianjiaju。liru,mouguofabuhedaoshutonggongchengzhaobiaoshu,zhongfanglianggeqiyezuchenglianhetitoubiao,bqiyequanquanweituoaqiyezuoweitoubiaoqiantoufang,fuzefujingwaitoubiao。zaitoubiaoshi,lianhetiqiantoufangaqiyeshoudangdihezuohuobandeguhuo,weiyubqiyeshangliang,linshijuedingzaiyuanbaojiajichushangzaijiang11%zuoweizuizhongbaojia,zuizhonglianhetizhongbiao。danbqiyedezhidijiazhongbiaohou,jingcesuanrenweizhongbiaojiahuidaozhikuisun,wufajieshoushishi,zhicilianggeqiyechanshengfalvjiufen。

5.buzhengdangjingzhengfengxian

快三suizhequanqiuxingfanfujinchengdejiakuaihejizhidebuduanwanshan,qiyeyikaoshangyehuiludeshouduanqudeliyidexianxiangjianghuizuaizhongguoqiyezouchuqudexingxiang。jinnianlai,zhongguoqiyefangfanbuzhengdangjingzhengfengxiandeyishisuiranyoulehendatigao,fangfancuoshiyeriquxitonghua,danbuzhengdangjingzhengfengxianrengranshi“yidaiyilu”changdaotuijinguochengzhongdeyidafengxian,yingyinqizugouzhongshi。

快三er、gongchengxiangmuhetongtanpanjiqiandingjieduancunzaidezhuyaofalvfengxian

gongchengxiangmuhetongtanpanjihetongqiandingjieduanshizhishoudaoyezhuzhongbiaotongzhishudaohetongshuzhengshiqiandingdejieduan。jiehezaidongnanyadiquxiangmuhetongtanpandejingyan,kuaisanrenweizheiyijieduanzhuyaodefalvfengxianhefangkongtixianzaiyixiajigefangmian:

快三1. jishubiaozhunhechengxuyuxiangguanfalvfaguipipeifengxian

快三jingwaigongchengxiangmuyibandoucaiyongbijiaoyangedejishubiaozhunhechengxu,danzaiqiandinghetongshi,youqizaifazhanzhongguojia,wangwangyouyuyezhudezhuanyeyuanyinhuozheqitakeguanyinsu,zaiyuandingbiaozhunhuochengxudejichushang,yinrubentuyixiefalvhuoguizhangdexiangguanwenjian,zheiyangzuobiaomiankanlaishihetongyuedinggengwanshan,dandengdaoxiangmushishizhongcaifaxianbufenbiaozhunhechengxuyubenguofalvyuedingxiangdichu,zengjialeyuyezhufenqizhengduandekenengxing,yanzhongdeshenzhikenengyingxianggongqi、zhiliang。yinci,zaicijieduan,yaoguangfanshoujixiangguanxinxihedianxinganli,zixifenxibentuhuajishubiaozhun、chengxuhenicaiyongbiaozhunchengxuzhijiandechayi,youqishixiangmushiyongguomeiyoushishiguodexinjishushigengyaozhuyi。liru,dongnanyamouguocaiyongzhongguobiaozhunhejishuxiujianchengshiqinggui,gaibiaozhunshangshushoucizaigaiguoshiyong。zaishijishigongzhong,gongchengyanshoudechengxuheyanshouwenjianmeiyoutongyibiaozhun,jingchangbiangeng,zaochenglerenliwulidejidalangfei。

2.gongchengxiangmujiesuanfengxian

快三gongchengxiangmujiesuanfengxianzhuyaotixianzaihetongduijiesuanzhouqihedanyuandeyuedingfangmian,yinfafengxiandezhijiehouguoshidaozhigongchengxiangmuxianjinliuduanlie。yibanguojigongchenghetongyuedingshianyuejiesuan,ruguohetongyuedingleteshudejiesuanfangshi,neimekenenghuiyinhanzheyidingdefengxian,xuyaozaihetongtanpanzhongyinqizhuyi。liru,mouguomouduantielutongxinxinhaogaizaogongchengyuanhetongyuedingyisangechezhan(hanqujian)weiyigejiesuandanyuan,zheiyangyuedingdeshishijieguoshi,jishisuoyouchezhan(hanqujian)wangongchengdudadao90%,yebufuhehetongyuedingdejiesuantiaojian,zaochengxiangmuzijinzhouzhuankunnan。houjingyuyezhuduocitanpancuoshang,caibiangengweianyuejiesuan,xiangmuzijinyalicaidedaolehuanjie。

3.shuiwufengxian

shuiwufengxianshiguojigongchengdeyigeteyoudefengxian。erqiebutongdechengbaofangshi,shuiwufengxianyebuyiyang。shuiwufengxiandezhuyaobiaoxianshi: shuiwuchouhuabudang,zaochengshuifuzengjia,huozheshuiwuzhengceyunyongbudang,zaochengtoushuishishidexingchengdeng。yinci,shuiwufengxianbujinkenengdaozhiqiyejingjiliyidesunshi,haiyoukenengyaochengdanxingshizeren。yinci,yishiyaoshenrulejiekuaisanguoyuxiangmusuozaiguodeshuifa,yijiliangguoqiandingde《shuishouxieding》,zaicijichushangzuohaoxiangmushuiwuchouhuafangan,biyaoshikepinqingdangdidezhuanyejigoupeihe。ershiyaoyangezhixingshuifa,bayangezhixingshuifafangdaoweihuzhongguoqiyexingxiang,weihu“yidaiyilu”changyidegaodu。

4.shiyongfalvfengxian

zaijingwaigongchengchengbaohetongzhong,shiyongfalvxuanzedeyudiyibanbushihenda,yibanshishiyongxiangmusuozaiguofalv。danyouyushouxiangmusuozaiguofalvdewanshanchengdudezhiyue,zaixiangmushishiguochengzhonghuiyudaojiaoduodedangdifalvmeiyouyuedingdeqingxing,youqiyifazhanzhongguojiaweishen。yinci,shiyongfalvdefengxianzaiyuguochengzhongchanshengdefenqihuozhengduanwufakeyideqingxingxiajixiangmudailaidebuquedingxing。yinci,yaochongfenlejiexiangmusuozaiguofalv,xuanzexiangmusuozaiguo、guojiguanli、guojitiaoyuedengxianghujiehedeshiyongfalvtixi,cainengyouxiaofangfanshiyongfalvfengxian。

5.huanbaofengxian

快三gebenhagenqihoudahuizhihou,ditanjianpaichengweishijiehuanjingdeyidaqushi。zaijinhoudeguojigongchengchenglanzhong,huanbaojianghuichengweigeguozhengfuxiangmulixiangdezhongdiancankaoyinsu。yejiushishuo,yangedehuanjingbaohubiaozhunjiangguanchexiangmushishidequanguocheng。yinci,huanbaofengxianshiweilaiqiyechenglanguojigongchengyaokaolvdeshouyaofengxian。huanbaofengxianbirandaozhixiangmujingjiliyidesunshi、qiyexingxiangdeyingxiang。qiyeyaotiqianshuxixiangmusuozaiguoguanyuhuanbaodexiangguanyaoqiu,zaihetongtanpanzhongjijiyingduihuanbaowenti,quebaozaihetongtanpanjieduandehuanbaofengxianjiangdaozuidi。

6.zhengduanjiejuefengxian

快三zhengduandedianxingbiaoxianxingshishihetongzhengduanfangmian,erhetongzhengduandewaizaibiaoxianyibanshibiaozhunhechengxudefenqi。zhengduanjiejuedefengxianzhuyaoshiyouyuzhengduanjizhibuwanshan,zhengduanjiejuekunnan,zuizhongdaozhijingjiliyideliushi,yanzhongzedaozhixiangmushibai。zongguanjinjinianlaizhongguozouchuquqiyefalvjiufendianxinganli,jiufendelingyudadouzaiyixiezhuanyelingyu,biruyixiechengxuxing、biaozhunxingfangmian。duiyuputongsusonglaishuo,piekaiqichengbenda、haoshizhangdequedianbushuo,jiuzhuanyefangmiandejiufenlaijiang,dabufenyoushejijishubiaozhun,bingbushiyibandefayuannenggoushengrendelingyu。yinci,qiyeyaobenzhe“xiaochengbenjiejuedawenti”deyuanze,shenzhongxuanzesusongzuoweizhengduanjiejuefangshi,jianyishiyongzhongcaiyuketidaidezhengduanjiejuefangshiadr(alternative dispute resolution)、diaojiedengxiangjiehedezhengduanjiejuefangshi,yiyouxiaojianshaozhengduanfengxian。

san、gongchengxiangmushishijieduancunzaidezhuyaofalvfengxian

gongchengxiangmushishijieduanzhuyaoshizhixiangmukaigongdaoxiangmujungongjieduan。zheiyijieduanshigongchengxiangmufalvfengxianzhubushifanghexianxiandejieduan,yijingshibiedefengxiansuizhegongchengxiangmudejinzhanzhubushifang,xindefengxiansuizhichuxian。zhongguoqiyezouchuquzhuanbianguannian,shouxianshiyaoshuli“qiyue”guannian,yejiushianhetongbanshideguannian。yezhiyouanhetongbanshi,caishiguankongfengxiandeyouxiaotujing。

1.gongchengzhiliangfengxian

gongchengzhiliangfengxiandewaizaibiaoxianshi: yifangmianshimeiyouanzhaohetongyuedingdebiaozhun、chengxushigongzaochengzhiliangyinhuanhuozhiliangshigu;lingyifangmianshizhongfangyuguzhudaibiaozhenduizhiliangbiaozhun、jianyanchengxu、zhiliangzhengmingwenjianrendingdefenqierchanshengdejiufen。yinci,bushimeiyouxingchengzhiliangshigudeshishijiumeiyouzhiliangfengxian,zheiyidianyinqizhongshi。liru,zhongguoqiyezaimouguojinxingfangjianshigong,hetongyuedingcaiyongyingguobiaozhun。shigongtuzhibiaoming,qiqiangyaojiaruyidingshuliangdelajin,quebaoneiqiangmohuihoumeiyouliefeng。zhongfangqiyeyouguanjishurenyuanrenwei,gaiguonianduwenchabuda,bujiarulajinyekequebaozhiliang。jinguanzuizhonggongchengzhiliangmeiwenti,danjianliheyezhurenweizhongfangmeiyouantushigong,bufuhejiesuanyaoqiu,buyujiesuan,zhongfangqiyezuizhongweicifuchulexiangyingdaijia。

2.gongchenganquanfengxian

快三gongchenganquanfengxianzhuyaobiaoxianshiweifananquanfalvguidingdaozhidefumianyingxiang,jiyoukenengshijingjiliyiliuchu,yekenengshixingshizerendechengdan。fangfananquanfengxianzhuyaoshiyaozhuyilvxingdangdiyuanquanyouguanxidefalvfaguiyijihetongyuedingdeanquantixikuaisan、anquanpeixun、anquanshigong、dujueweiguizuoyedengfangmiandechengnuo。qiyechuyifaheguizuohaoanquanguanligongzuowai,goumaigongchengkuaisanyiqiexianheweiyuangonggoumaiyiwaishanghaixianyeshijianshaoanquanfengxiandejucuozhiyi。

3.gongqifengxian

gongqifalvfengxiandezhuyaobiaoxianshibunenganzhaohetongyuedinggongqiwangongdaozhiyezhudegongqisuopei。gongqibaozhangshiyigeqiyeguanlishilidetixian,erqiegongchengyuqideyuanyinyeshiduozhongduoyangde。yinci,chulejiaqiangguanliwai,qiyepingshiyaozhuyishoujiyezhuweiyuedexiangguanzhengju,binganzhaoguidingdechengxuyuyezhujinxingwenjiankuaisan,yibeizaiyezhujinxinggongqisuopeishijinxingfansuopei。

4.zongbaohefenbaofengxian

zongbaohefenbaodefalvfengxianshiyibufenzouchuquqiyerongyihulvedeyigefengxian。zongbaofalvfengxiandezhuyaobiaoxianshiyouyuzongchengbaoshangshuyuhuodaiyuxingshiguanlizeren,yibaodaiguan、baoerbuguan,fenbaoshangxingweiweifanfalvfaguihuozhebunengduixianhetongyuedingdeduiyezhudechengnuo,zongbaoshangyinggaichengdandefengxian。fenbaoshangyuzongbaoshangzhijianshuyuliandaizeren(joint liability),wulunshiyezhuzhidingdefenbaoshang,haishianzhaobiaochengxuzhongbiaodefenbaoshang,fenbaoshangchuxianwentizongbaoshangbudanbunengmianze,erqiemaodunheyulundezhixiangdoujiangshizongbaoshang。chuyaochengdanxiangyingzerenhesunshiwai,yanzhongdeshenzhihuiyingxiangguojiaxingxiang。

5.laowuyonggongfengxian

快三laowuyonggongfengxianshizhizailaowuyonggongfangmianweifanfalv、faguihuohetongyuedingdaozhiqiyechengdanzerenhuojingjiliyidesunshi。laowuyonggongfengxianshichenglangongchengfalvfengxianzhongzuiweifuzadefengxian,juyoufengxianyunhanshijiankuaduda、shiyongfalvfuzayijifengxianbiaoxianqingxingfuzadetezheng。

laowuyonggongfengxianzhuyaobiaoxianxingshi: yishilaodongfalvshiyongfengxian。biru,yuenanguidinglaodongguanxidezhuyaofalvshi2012nian《laodongfa》。《laodongfa》mingqueguidingqishiyongyuzaiyuenangongzuodewaiguoren,jibenyuanzeshizaiyuenangongzuodewaiguorenbixuzunshouyuenanlaodongfalv,chufeiyuenanzuoweiqianyueguodeguojitiaoyuelingyouguiding。danshi,yuenanlaodongfabushiyongyugenjuwaiguolaodonghetongjinxingguanlide,zaiyuenangongzuodewaiguoren,rugongsigaoguan。ershizhaopinzhongguojiwugongrenyuanfujingwaiwugongdefalvfengxian。yibanguojiadouguiding,zaibenguogongzuodewaiguorenwulunshijianzhangduandoubixuqudegongzuoxuke;lingyifangmian,zhongguojiwugongrenyuanjingwaiwugong,yongrendanweidechengxuhedaiyuhaiyaofuhezhongguofalvdeyaoqiu。sanshizhaopinjingwairenyuandegugongfengxian。guyongxiangmusuozaiguolaogongdefengxianzhuyaobaokuolaodonghetongxingshifengxian、gongzizhifufengxian、shebao、xiujiazhidu、jitixieyi、hejiepinbaohudengfengxian;sishilaowupeiefengxian;wushigonghuijiandufengxian。gonghuidaibiaolaogongtichugexianggaishandaiyudeyaoqiu,bixuxieshangjiejue,fouzekenengdaozhibagong。yinci,qiyewubishuxiliangguolaodongfalvfagui,yangeanzhangbanshicainengyouxiaofangfafengxian,bunengxincunjiaoxing。

快三6.gongchengliangbiangengsuopeifengxian

xiangmugongchengliangbiangengshishifenzhengchangdeqingkuang,biangengsuopeifengxianzhuyaobiaoxianzai: meiyouhuomeiyouwanquanzunxunfalvfaguihuozhehetongyuedingdebiangenggongchengliangdechengxuhuomeiyoushishiyuedingdejishubiaozhun,yijixiangguanzhengmingwenjianqueshidaozhidesuopeishibai,zuizhongzaochengjingjisunshi。liru,dongnanyamouguotujianxiangmu,zaimeiyourenheshumianpizhundeqingkuangxia,qingxinyezhukoutouchengnuo,zhongfangqiyexiangmufuzerenxialingjinxinglebushuyuhetongyuedingfanweidebiandaopushe,housuopeiyouyuzhengjuqueshi,suopeishibai。yinci,yaozhonghetongyueding,zhonghetonglvxing,cainengyouxiaofangfangaifengxian。

7.gongchengxiangmuyanshoufengxian

gongchengxiangmuyanshoufengxiandezhuyaobiaoxianshizaifenxiang、fenbugongchengyanshouhuojungongyanshouguochengzhong,youyuhetongyuedingcunzaiyanshouchengxubuming、biaozhunbuqing,zhishihetongshuangfangchanshengzhengduanshenzhisusongdefengxian;huozheshiyouyuyezhukeguanshangyoueyituoqiangongchengkuandezhuguanqingxiang,jiezhuhetongyuedingyanshouchengxuhebiaozhunshangdexiaci,lanyongyezhuquanli,daozhizhongfangqiyeshishishangdeyanshouzhihou,jinerdaozhigongchengkuanbunenganqishouhuihuogenbenshoubuhuidefengxian。zheileifengxiankenengdaozhixiangmushibai。liru,zhongyamouguoyezhuyaoqingzhongguomouqiyecanyumoushangwujiudianerqixiangmudejianzao,zhongfangqiyezaijinxingjinzhidiaochashifaxian,cengjingyouzhongguoqiyecanyuyiqixiangmudexiujian。jingguoyucengjingcanjiandanweigoutong,dezhigaiyezhucengjingyiyanshoubuhegedengliyoutuoyanyanshou,shenzhibuxifuzhususong,dadaotuoqiangongchengkuandemude。weici,zhongguomouqiyejingjuecehouguoduanzhongzhihezuo,youxiaofangfanlekenengchuxiandeyanshoufengxian。

8.gongchengxiangmudianzhifengxian

快三gongchengxiangmudianzhifengxianzhuyaoshidianzhidehetongyuedingbuwanshanhuowuhetongyueding,mangmuweiqiangjinduhuozheqingxinyezhuchengnuo,meiyoufenxiqingchuxiangmuzijinduanquedeyuanyin,daozhidianzhikuanbunengjishishouhuihuogenbenbunengshouhuidefengxian。zaiguojigongchengjingyingzhong,yaozhuyideshi,dianzhigongchengkuanruguomeiyouanzhaofalvguidingchengxujinxing,chujingjifengxianwai,rongyiyinfabuzhengdangjingzhengdexiangguanfengxian,zouchuquqiyebukebucha。

9.gongchengbaohanfengxian

快三guojigongchengshejidebaohanzhuyaoyouyufukuanbaohan、lvyuebaohan、baoliujinbaohan,baohanshiyongdeguizeshiguojishanghuijiansuojifubaohantongyiguize(urdg758)。baohandezhuyaofengxianshijiansuojifu、bukechexiaoyijibaohandechengbaoqixian。yinci,qiyebixujingtongurdg758guize,zaicijichushangyuyezhujinxingcuoshang,bimiankaichuchengbaoqixianchangkoubaohanyijiwutiaojianjiansuojifudebaohaneryinfafengxian。

si、gongchengxiangmushouweijieduancunzaidezhuyaofalvfengxian

gongchengxiangmushouweiyanshoujieduanshizhigongchengjungonghoudaogongchengquexianqijiemandejieduan,yeshixiangmuzhuyaofalvfengxianyijingdedaoshifang,xiangmujibenjieshudejieduan。danshigaijieduanyirancunzaiyidingdefalvfengxian,zhidezhuyi。

快三1.xiangmudanganguanlidefalvfengxian

danganguanlidefalvfengxianzhuyaozhizhongfangqiyeshuyuhuodaiyugongchengxiangmudanganguanli,zaochengfumianfalvhouguojiqiyejingjiliyisunshidefengxian。danganguanlifengxianyunhanyugongchengxiangmuchenglanquanguocheng,dankenengjizhongbaofayugongchengxiangmushouweijieduan。zhuyaobiaoxianzailianggefangmian: yifangmianshiduishoudaodejuyoufalvhuogouchenghetongxingzhi、zhengmingshishidewanglaihanjiandengguanlibushan,daozhiwenjianqueshi,xingchengzishendesunshihuochengdanfalvhouguo;lingyifangmianshiyouyuguanlihunluan,fachudewenjian、hanjiandengmeiyouzunxunyingyoudeshenpichengxuhuozhewenzibiaodayouqiyi,yijibierendaoyongmingyifachuhanjian,xingchengzishendesunshihuochengdanfalvhouguo。yinci,qiyewubiyaojiaqiangdanganguanli,zhidingyangedegongwen、hanjiandeshoufachengxujipizhunzhidu,zuohaodengjicundang,youqizaixiangmushouweijieduanrenyuanbiandongpinfandeqingkuangxia,yangeanchengxuyubiaozhunjinxingdanganguanli,cainengyouxiaofangfanfalvfengxian。

2.quexianzerenqifengxian。

gongchengjungongjiaofuhouquexianzerenqiyibanwei24geyue。quexianzerenqifengxianzhuyaoshizerenqineimeiyouanzhaohetongyuedingkefuquexiandaozhiqiyejingjisunshidefengxian。yinci,quexianxingchenghou,yishiyaomingquequexianshifouchengbaoshangzaocheng,huozhequexiandezaochengyuchengbaoshangyouwuyinguoguanxi;ershiyaofenqingquexiandekefuzeren。youyuquexiankenengyingxianggongchengxiangmuzhengtigongnengdefahui,yincichengbaoshangyaojijijinxingquexiankefu。danqiantishi,bixuzaifenqingzerendeqiantixiajinxingquexiankefu,fouzekenengbujinshijingjiliyidesunshi,kenenghaihuimianlinquexianzerenqideyanzhangfengxian;sanshiyaozhengquejisuanquexianzerenqi,quexianzerenqijiemanyiweizhexiangmuzerendequanmianlvyuewancheng,bunengyinjisuanshuhuyinfaxiangmuzerendeyanzhang。

3.susonghuozhongcaifengxian

suizhexiangmushouweidezhankai,yuyezhu、fenbaoshang、gongyingshangdefenqikenenghuijizhongzaizheiyijieduanbaofa。biaoxianzaijifangmian: yishiyuyezhudesusonghuozhongcaifengxian。youdeyezhukenenghuijiyugezhongkaolv,ba“suanzongzhang”deshijizhiyugongchengxiangmujieshouweijieduan;ershiyudangdifenbaoqiyedesusongfengxian;sanshiyuzhongguoshebeigongyingshangjiuzhibaoqixian、zhibaozerendejiufenjisusongfengxian;sishiyudangdilaogongjiguoneipaichulaogongdeyonggongsusongfengxian。yinci,qiyeyaogaodurenqinggongchengshouweijieduanshigezhongfalvfengxianjizhongshifangdejieduan,zhengqueguliangkenengcunzaidefalvfengxianbingjijiyingdui,cainengdujueyinmangmuleguanjiqiyedailaidesunshi。

快三yishangshiduijingwaigongchengxiangmugegejieduanzhuyaocunzaidefalvfengxiandeyixierenshihetihui,youyupianfuyouxian,duixiangmurongzifengxian、xiangmuyijiaofengxian、guojiyunshufengxiandengbuzaiyiyilieju。jieheduoniandejingwaixiangmufalvfengxianfangfanjingyan,kuaisanrenweifalvfengxianbujincunzaiyugongchengxiangmudequanguocheng,gengxuyaojiehehuanjingdebianhuabuduanjiayishibiehefangfanyingdui,zhiyouzheiyangcainengquebaojingwaixiangmudefengxiankekong。

wu、zhongguoqiyejingwaichenglanxiangmufalvfengxianfangfandejianyi

快三zhongguoqiyezouchuquyilai,zuochulehendachengji,jileilebushaojingyan。danshi,shizhijinri,rengranyouyixieqiyeyouyufalvchouhuabudangchuxianyidingdekunjing,zhuyaobiaoxianzai: yishiqiyezhengtidongfa、xuefayishibuqiang,gebieqiyeshenzhirenwei“haiwaijiushifawai”,zhongguofalvguanbuzhe,waiguofalvyoubudong,wuzhizhewuwei;ershishoufayishibuqiang,jingyingguochengzhongchuxian“jiaotengyijiao,toutengyitou”xianxiang,zaochengweifashishihouyou“sizhubupakaishuitang”,jiqiyezaochengsunshi,dianwulezhongguoqiyexingxiang;sanshiyongfayishibuqiang,chuxianfenqi、zhengzhishishihou,“douqi、douli、douli”zhengticehuabudang,sangshilexiaochengbenjiejuedawentidexianji;sishiyouyujingwaidaxingxiangmudeguanlifangduoweidangdizhengfuzhinengbumen,qiyezaidajiaodaoguochengzhongchangchuyulieshidiwei,guojiacengmiandezhichilidubugou。

zaijinhoudejingwaixiangmuchenglanguochengzhong,kuaisanjianyizuohaoruxiagongzuo,zengqiangzhongguoqiyezaijingwaichenglangongchengdejingzhengli:

1.jianyizhengfuweizouchuquqiyetigongxitongfalvkuaisan

yishigenju“yidaiyilu”changyi,shulixianyouhaiwaitouzixiangguanzhengce。jianyijiakuaijingwaitouzilifa,xitonghuasikaozouchuqufalvqundewenti;ershijianyizhengfujianlitongyidehaiwaitouzixinxipingtai,weiqiyetigonggaozhiliangdexinxi;sanshicongqiyexuyaochufa,gaishanxianyoudewaihuiherenyuanchurujingshenpizhidu ;sishijiadashuishou、rongzizhengcedengzhichilidu,qieshijiejuerongzinandewenti;wushijishipingguhegengxintouziguodeguojiafengxian;jianyikeyouzhengfuxiangguanbumenzuzhi,weituozhongjiejigou、zhuanjiadengjiecengcanyu,jianliguobiefengxianpinggutixi,dingqifabiaobaogao,gongqiyehaiwaitouzicankao;liushijianyisheli“yidaiyilu”zhongcaiyuan,goujian“yidaiyilu”zhengduanjiejuejizhi,wei“yidaiyilu”changyibaojianhuhang。

快三2.jianyiqiyejiaqiangjingwaixiangmufalvfengxianguanlitizhijizhikuaisan

快三fengxiandeyuantouzaijingwaixiangmuchenglangehuanjie,danfengxiandefangkonglibukaiqiangyoulideneibuguanli。yishiyaojianlijianquanqiyefalvheguigongzuotixi,peiqi、peiqiangfalvheguigongzuorenyuan;youqishijingwaishigongxiangmubu,yaopeiqipeiqiangxiangmulvshi。ershizhidingbingwanshanfalvheguigongzuozhidu。qieshikexingdezhidushibaozhanggongzuoshunlishishidejiejing;sanshijianlifalvfaguixinxishoujishibiegengxinjizhi;zhenduijingwaishichangqingkuangkaizhanfenguobie、fenxiangmudejingwaifalvfengxianpaichagongzuo,quelizhuyaofalvfengxianqingdanjiayizhongdianfangkong。sishijishishoujizhenglibingzuzhixuexizhongguoqiyezouchuqudedianxingfengxianfangfanhesusongdeanli,dadaojuyifansan、shequjingyanjiaoxundexiaoguo。wushiyaozhidingyouzhenduixingdefalvfengxianfangfancuoshijiyingjiyuan,bingjiaqiangzaiqiyegegecengmianfalvfaguihefengxianyingjiyuanpeixun;liushijianli“yigangshuangze”dejixiaokaopinhewenzejizhi,jiangfalvfengxianfangfanzhizeluoshidaogegegangwei。

3.jianyiqiyezhongdianjiaqianghetongquanguochengguanli

jiaqianghetongguanli,shifangfangongchengxiangmufalvfengxiandeyouxiaotujing。yishizhongzhunru,jiyangefenbaoshangzhunruzhidu。“youxiudehezuohuobanshichenggongdejichu”。benzheshudihuaguanliyuanze,congshichangyouxianxuanzezaijishuliliang、zhuangbeishuiping、leisigongchengjingyan、shengyuyuxinyu、jinjiniancaiwuzhuangkuanghekaijubaohannenglidenggegefangmianzonghekaochadouyoujingyan、youxinyu、youshilidefenbaoshangweihegefenbaoshang,congyuantoushangezhihetongfengxianyuandeshuliang。ershizhongqianyue,jiyanbahetongqiandingguan。tongyihetongfanben,zuidaxiandudifangfanlehetongfanbendefalvfengxian,bimianyinbiaoshubudangdaozhifalvzhengyierjixiangmudailaijingjishangdesunshi。tongshi,yangezhixinghetongzaigongsi、xiangmubuliangjipingshenzhidu,duichaochuhelifengxianwaidehetong,shixingshanghuifenxi、liwaishenpi。zuidaxiandudidujuehetongqiandingjieduandefalvfengxian。sanshizhonglvyue,jiyankonghetonglvyueguanli。zaihetonglvyuejieduan,duiyuxianchangguanli、jindukongzhi、zhiliangyanshouchengxu、jiesuanzhifudengzhongyaohuanjie,jianghetongyuedingqianrugongzuoliuchenghebiaozhun,youxiaofahuihetongyueshuxiaoli,quebaoanyaoqiulvxinghetongtiaokuan。sishizhongjianguan,jiyansuhetongdejianduguanli。qiyelingdaodefazhiguannianshizhuahaohetongjianguangongzuodeguanjian。conghetongdinglidaolvxingdequanguochengdouyouquanlizaiqizuoyong。jiaqianghetongjianguanjiushiyaobaquanlizhuangjinzhidudelongzi,bingchuyiyandaifa,yiquandaifa,yiquanyafadequanbenweisixiang。

zongshangsuoshu,suizhe“yidaiyilu”changyixiangzongshenfazhan,zhongguoqiyezaijingwaichenglanxiangmudeguimojianghuiyuelaiyueda、shuliangyehuiyuelaiyueduo。zhiyaokuaisanshizhongyiqiuzhenwushidejingshen,nulizuodaoyoufakeyi、youzhangkexun,jinzhuajingwaifalvfengxianxitongfangfan、quanyuanfangfanhequanguochengfangfandezhuashou,buduantansuowanshanjingwaifalvfengxianfangkongcuoshi,qiyehaiwaishiyebijiangqudefengshuochengguo。

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